ralph lauren polo outlet store Effective Teachers of Literacy
1.1 SIZE=2>This study was commissioned to help the Teacher Training Agency and teachers in England to understand more clearly how effective teachers help children to become literate. It began before the National Literacy Project and, although it makes many connections with this project and the National Literacy Strategy, it does not claim to be a direct product of either. However, to enable teachers to relate our findings to these important national initiatives, we have wherever possible made explicit cross references to their core ideas. Our findings are based on close examination of the work of a sample of teachers whose pupils make effective learning gains in literacy and of a more random sample of teachers whose pupils make less progress in literacy.
Literacy can and has been defined very widely. For our purposes, literacy is seen as a unitary process with two complementary aspects, reading and writing. Seeing reading and writing in this way, simply as opposite faces of the same coin, emphasises a basic principle within the National Curriculum for English, that is, to develop children’s skills within an integrated programme and to inter relate the requirements of the Range, Key Skills, and Standard English and Language Study sections of the Programmes of Study.
In the National Literacy Project literacy is defined through an analysis of what literate children should be able to do. This produces the following list.
read and write with confidence, fluency and understanding;
be interested in books, read with enjoyment and evaluate and justify their preferences;
know and understand a range of genres in fiction and poetry, and understand and be familiar with some of the ways that narratives are structured through basic literary ideas of setting, character and plot;
understand and be able to use a range of non fiction texts;
be able to orchestrate a full range of reading cues (phonic, graphic, syntactic,
contextual) to monitor and self correct their own reading;
plan draft revise and edit their own writing;
have an interest in words and word meanings, and a growing vocabulary;
understand the sound and system and use this to read and spell accurately;
have fluent and legible handwriting. comprehension and composition
The term level is used to refer to structural/organisational layers in texts. Each of the levels is essential to effective reading and writing and there is a very close inter relationship between them. At different stages of learning literacy, however, some levels will assume greater prominence in teaching. Word level work will, for example, be very much to the fore in the beginning stages of literacy learning even though teachers will also want to enable pupils to locate such work in correctly formed sentences and meaningful texts rather than pursuing it as an end in itself.
given the powerful role of literacy in society, it is inevitable that standards of literacy and definitions of what constitutes “being literate” should be a concern for educators. With the development of more and more uses and functions for literacy, it is certainly the case that children need to achieve ever higher standards of literacy to “be literate” in their society. The major factor in raising standards must be the quality of the teaching of literacy which children experience, particularly during the primary phase of schooling.
High quality literacy teaching demands high quality literacy teachers and any education system must attempt to maximise the expertise of teachers in teaching literacy. In order to direct improvements in the selection, training and professional development of teachers of literacy most profitably, a great deal can be learned from a study of those primary school teachers identified as effective in the teaching of literacy.
Such a study was the aim of the research described in this report.
This report gives an account of the project, its main findings and their implications for policy and practice. Much of the specific detail of the research and its findings will be found in the Appendices to this report.
identify the key factors of what effective teachers know, understand and do which enables them to put effective teaching of literacy into practice in the primary phase;
identify the strategies which would enable those factors to be more widely applied;
examine aspects of continuing professional development which contribute to the development of effective teachers of literacy;
examine what aspects of their initial teacher training and induction contribute to developing expertise in novice teachers of literacy.
The research was designed to answer these questions by gathering evidence in the following ways:
a questionnaire survey of the qualifications, experience, reported beliefs, practices and preferences in teaching literacy of a group of 228 teachers identified by the research team as effective in the teaching of literacy on the basis of a range of data including pupil learning gains.
observations of literacy lessons given by 26 of these effective teachers of literacy.
interviews with these 26 teachers about the content,
structure and organisation of the lessons observed and about the knowledge underpinning them.